Dough refers to a semisolid mixture formed by combining flour with water in proportionate amounts. A dough may additionally contain oil, salts, butter or spices. Flour used for dough making might be of various types like wheat flour, all purpose flour, corn flour, sweet rice flour or bread flour, depending on the end product desired. Sometimes, yeast is also used in the preparation, since it helps the dough to rise and increase in bulk. Dough acts as a starting component for preparing many edible products like bread, chapatti, pizza, pastry etc.
In this method, wheat flour or all purpose flour is mixed with water and active dry yeast. In this way bread is prepared with the help of dough. Hot water and sugar are the other ingredients.
- 3 cups flour
- 3 tsp. salt
- 3 tsp. sugar
- 3 cups warm water
- Active dry yeast
Materials and equipment required
- Large mixing bowl
- Pastry knife
- Dough maker
- Heat water to lukewarm temperature. Pour the water into 2 cups.
- Add sugar and salt into water in a mixing bowl. Stir well for complete dissolution into the mixture.
- Place the sifter over the mixing bowl. Pour flour into sifter at the rate of half a cup at one time.
- Add one teaspoon of yeast to the first 2 cups of sifted flour.
- With addition of half cup, stop for a while. Stir it quickly into the mix for about 2 minutes. Continue doing this till the flour is thoroughly mixed.
- Sprinkle some flour over a table, making a non stick surface. Place the dough just formed upon the surface and roll it, so that it has a thickness of less than 1 inch.
- Then, divide the dough into 3 sections. Every part is to be kneaded, squeezed, pushed and pulled for around 5 minutes.
- Place the well kneaded dough into an oven, heat it to a high value and provide rising time of 45 minutes.
This method is used for preparing Indian dishes like Chapatti.
- Wheat flour
- ½ tsp salt
- 1 cup lukewarm water
Step 1: Mixing starting ingredients
Combine wheat flour, water, salt and few teaspoons of oil in a mixing bowl. It is advisable to add lukewarm water as it makes it easier to knead the dough.
Step 2: Kneading for desired pliability
Adjust flour water ratio, until desired dough pliability is obtained. Mix by moving fingers in circular motion for 10 minutes. The dough formed must be soft and supple.
Method 3: This method is used to prepare pastry dough. It could be made out of 3 types of flour each having different texture and protein content. The flour types are cake flour, bread flour and all purpose flour. The ingredients are well mixed to form a round dough, which is then refrigerated.
- All purpose flour
- ½ tsp salt
- 1/3 cup and 1 tbsp shortening
- 2-4 tbsp cold water
Step 1: Easy mixing
Cut the shortening into flour with the aid of a pastry blender or balancing knives. Mix thoroughly so that the ingredients are well distributed. Over-treatment might make it tough. Once the dough is well kneaded and shaped into a round shape. Wrap it tightly and refrigerate it for 45 minutes.
Step 2: Rolling
Place pastry dough on flat surface. Start the rolling process from the centre towards outside, ensuring that it does not adhere to the surface. Sprinkle some dry flour.
Step 3: Shaping
Fold pastry dough 4 times. Then place it on the pie plate, such that its point lies centrally upon the plate. Unfold the pastry and spread it carefully in order to avoid stretching. If the pastry gets stretched, it will shrink when it is being baked. Flute the edges making a perfect crust.
Method 4: Making a pie dough
In this case flour water mixture is blended with butter. The water added to the mix must be icy cold. Butter is added to enhance workability and also in forming the golden crust of pie. The secret ingredient has its own role to play. It prevents the formation of gluten strands in the pie crust, making it soft and flaky.
- More than 2 cups of flour
- Half teaspoon of iodized salt
- 1 cup of cold butter
- 7 tbsp of ice cold water
- 1 tbsp of secret ingredient i.e. white vinegar, sugar, vodka or lemon juice
- Firstly, mix flour and salt in a large mixing bowl. Thoroughly stir flour and salt together in a thermally resistant mixing bowl. In order to prevent the gluten strands of the dough forming a bond, it is necessary to maintain a cool temperature. Hence chilled flour must be used. Butter used must also be chilled. Cut the butter and pour it into the flour. Before mixing, it must be divided into large chunks to ease the combination process. The addition and mixing of fat is continued, until small and uniformly size chunks are observed.
- Pour ice cold water into a bowl containing flour. Stir the contents gently using a stirring spoon. Pour water gradually in tablespoons with constant agitation. The final mixture should form a loose ball, should not be too dry or too wet. The dough must never be overworked, so that the final crust is flaky but not too tough.
- If in case, the workability of the mix is not okay, it is advisable to stop the process of mixing and insert the mixing bowl into fridge. This will enable the mixture to get chilled to a proper workable temperature.
- Cool the dough in refrigerator. In order to preserve the dough for extensive period of time, a self sealing freezer can be used. Just before final application, the dough must be defrosted in the refrigerator for one night.
Method 5: Making Pizza dough
Pizza dough is prepared with the help of all purpose flour, salt and active dry yeast. The contents are well mixed and mashed forming a ball. The bowl containing the dough is left undisturbed, so that the dough rises. Then it is mixed with some dry flour. Sometimes, oil may also be added.
- Active dry yeast
- All purpose flour
- 4 tbsp sea salt of Kosher salt
Step 1: Blending
Mash all the contents together forming a ball. Place the dough into another clean bowl. Cover the bowl with a plastic wrap for minimum 2 hours. Lift the plastic wrap and note that the dough has grown to double its size.
Step 2: Dough making
Mash all the contents together forming a ball. Place the dough into another clean bowl.
Step 3: Dough rising
Cover the bowl with a plastic wrap for atleast 2 hours. Lift the plastic wrap and note that the dough has grown to double its size.
Step 4: Smearing dry flour
On a clean surface put some flour. Spread the dough on it. Cut into 6 partitions. Fold the corners to the centre forming spherical balls.
- One needs to add water in proportionate quantities to flour for desired pliability of dough.
- Addition of butter or oil helps in making soft dough with added consistency.